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Selected Publications


Powell, L., Kosakowski, H., Saxe, R. (2018). Social Origins of Cortical Face Areas. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.[PDF]
Bruneau, E., Jacoby, N., Kteily, N., Saxe, R. (2018). Denying humanity: The distinct neural correlates of blatant dehumanization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.[PDF]
Kosakowski, H., Saxe, R. (2018). "Affective Theory of Mind" and the Function of the Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology.[PDF]
Richardson, H., Lisandrelli, G., Riobueno-Naylor, A., Saxe, R. (2018). Development of the Social Brain from Age Three to Twelve Years. Nature Communications.[PDF]
Kliemann, D., Richardson, H., Anzellotti, S., Ayyash, D., Haskins, A., Gabrieli, J., Saxe, R. (2018). Cortical responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions generalize across stimuli, and are sensitive to task-relevance, in adults with and without Austism. Cortex.[PDF]
Tomova, L., Heinrichs, M., Lamm, C. (2018). The Other and Me: Efects of oxytocin on self-other distinction. International Journal of Psychophysiology.[PDF]
Saxe, R. (2018) Seeing other minds in 3D. Trends in Cognitive Sciences [PDF]


Powell, L., Hobbs, K., Bardis, A., Carey,S., Saxe, R. (2017). Replications of implicit theory of mind tasks with varying representational demands. Cognitive Development.[PDF]
Bruneau, E., Cikara, M., Saxe, R. (2017). Parochial empathy predicts reduced altruism and the endorsement of passive harm. Social Psychological and Personality Science.[PDF]
Powell, L.J., Deen, B., Saxe, R. (2017). Using individual functional channels of interest to study cortical development with fNIRS. Developmental Science.[PDF]
Koster-Hale, J.*, Richardson, H.*, Velez, N., Asaba, M., Young, L., Saxe, R. (2017). Mentalizing regions represent distributed, continuous, and abstract dimensions of others' beliefs. NeuroImage. (*authors contributed equally) [PDF]
Saygin, Z. M.*, Kliemann, D.*, Iglesias, J. E., van der Kouwe, A. J. W., Boyd, E., Reuter, M., Stevens, A., Van Leemput, K., McKee, A., Frosch, M. P., Fischl, B., Augustinack, J.C. (2017). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging reveals nuclei of the human amygdala: manual segmentation to automatic atlas. NeuroImage. (*authors contributed equally) [PDF]
Anzellotti, S. (2017) Anterior temporal lobe and the representation of knowledge about people. PNAS [PDF]
Kleiman-Weiner, M., Saxe, R., Tenenbaum, J. (2017) Learning a commonsense moral theory. Cognition [PDF]
Saxe, R., Houlihan, S. D. (2017) Formalizing emotion concepts within a Bayesian model of theory of mind. Current Opinion in Psychology [PDF]
Baker, C.L., Jara-Ettinger, J., Saxe, R., Tenenbaum, J. (2017) Rational quantitative attribution of beliefs, desires and percepts in human mentalizing. Nature Human Behavior [PDF]
Anzellotti, S., Klieman, D., Jacoby, N., Saxe, R. (2017) Directed Network Discovery with Dynamic Netowrk Modeling.
bioRxiv [PDF]
Deen, B., Richardson, H., Dilks, D.D., Takahashi, A., Keil, B., Wald, L.L., Kanwisher, N., Saxe, R. (2017) Organization of high-level visual cortex in human infants. Nature Communications [PDF]


Kliemann, D., Jacoby, N., Anzellotti, S., Saxe, R.R. (2016) Decoding task and stimulus representations in face-responsive cortex. Cognitive Neuorpsychology[PDF]
Anzellotti, S., Fedorenko, E., Caramazza, A., Saxe, R. (2016) Measuring and Modeling Transformations of Information Between Brain Regions with fMRI. bioRxiv [PDF]
Skerry, A.E., Saxe, R. (2016) What Neuroscience Can Reveal about Cognition and Its Origins. Core Knowledge and Conceptual Change [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2016) Moral status of accidents. PNAS [PDF]
Chakroff, A., Dungan, J., Koster-Hale, J., Brown, A., Saxe, R., Young, L. (2016) When Minds Matter for Moral Judgment: Intent Informaiton is Neurally Encoded for Harmful But Not Impure Acts. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience [PDF]
Anzellotti, S., Caramazza, A., Saxe, R. (2016) Multivariate Pattern Connectivity. bioRxiv [PDF]


Jacoby, N., Bruneau, E., Saxe, R. (2015) Localizing Pain Matrix and Theory of Mind networks with both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. NeuroImage [PDF]
Bedny, M., Richardson, H., Saxe, R. (2015) "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children. Journal of Neuroscience [PDF]
Skerry, A.E., Saxe, R. (2015) Neural Representations of Emotion Are Organized around Abstract Event Features. Current Biology [PDF] [Raw Feature Ratings] [Stimulus Ratings]
Deen, B., Koldewyn, K., Kanwisher, N., Saxe, R. (2015) Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus. Cerebral Cortex [PDF]
Bruneau, E., Jacoby, N., Saxe, R. (2015) Empathic control through coordinated interaction of amygdala, theory of mind and extended pain matrix brain regions. NeuroImage [PDF]
Spunt, R.P., Elison, J.T., Dufour, N., Hurlemann, R., Saxe, R., Adolphs, R., (2015) Amygdala lesions do not compromise the cortical network for false-belief reasoning. PNAS[PDF]
Deen, B., Saxe, R., Bedny M., (2015) Occipital Cortex of Blind Individuals Is Functionally Coupled with Executive Control Areas of Frontal Cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience[PDF]
Osher, D.E., Saxe, R., Koldewin, K., Gabrieli, J.D.E, Kanwisher, N., Saygin, Z.M., (2015) Structural Connectivity Fingerprints Predict Cortical Selectivity for Multiple Visual Categories across Cortex. Cerebral Cortex[PDF]


Koldewyn, K., Yendiki, A., Weigelt, S., Gweon, H., Julian, J., Richardson, H., Malloy, C., Saxe, R., Fischl, B., Kanwisher, N. (2014). Differences in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus but no general disruption of white matter tracts in children with autism spectrum disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences[PDF]
Skerry, A.E., Saxe, R., (2014) A Common Neural Code for Perceived and Inferred Emotion. The Journal of Neuroscience[PDF]
Phillips, J., Ong, D.C., Surtees, A.D.R., Xin, Y., Williams, S., Saxe, R. & Frank, M.C., (in press) Reconsidering Kovacs, Teglas, and Endress (2010). Psychological Science.[PDF]
Jenkins, A.C., Dodell-Feder, D., Saxe, R., Knobe, J., (2014) The Neural Bases of Directed and Spontaneous Mental State Attributions to Group Agents. PLoSOne. [PDF]
Cikara, M., Bruneau, E., Van Bavel, J.J., Saxe, R. (2014) Their pain gives us pleasure: How intergroup dynamics shape empathic failures and counter-empathic responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.[PDF]
Koster-Hale, J., Bedny, M., Saxe, R. (2014) Thinking about seeing: Perceptual sources of knowledge are encoded in the theory of mind brain regions of sighted and blind adults. Cognition.[PDF]
Cikara, M., Jenkins, A., Dufour, N., Saxe, R. (2014) Reduced self-referential neural response during intergroup competition predicts competitor harm. Neuroimage.[PDF]


Gweon, H., Saxe, R. (2013). Developmental cognitive neuroscience of Theory of Mind. Neural Circuit Development and Function in the Brain: Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience. Elsevier. Ed: J. Rubenstein & P. Rakic [PDF]
Dufour, N., Redcay,E., Young, E., Mavros, P.L., Moran, J.M., Triantafyllou, C., Gabrieli, J.D.E, Saxe, R. (2013) Similar brain activation during false belief tasks in a large sample of adults with and without Autism. PLoSOne. [PDF]
Koster-Hale, J., Saxe, R. (2013) Theory of Mind: a neural prediction problem. Neuron. [PDF]
Dravida, S., Saxe, R., Bedny, M. (2013) People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions. Frontiers in language sciences. [PDF],
Koster-Hale, J., Saxe, R. (2013) Functional Neuroimaging of Theory of Mind. Understanding Other Minds, 3rd Ed. Ed: Baron-Cohen, Lombardo & Tager-Flusberg [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2013) The new puzzle of Theory of Mind development. In Navigating the Social World: What Infants, Children, and Other Species Can Teach Us. Ed: M Banaji & S Gelman. [PDF]
Bruneau, E., Dufour, N., Saxe R (2013) How We Know It Hurts: Item Analysis of Written Narratives Reveals Distinct Neural Responses to Others' Physical Pain and Emotional Suffering. PLoSOne. [PDF]
Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S., Brink, K., Bergen, L., Lim, E., Saxe, R. (2013). A Noisy-Channel Account of Crosslinguistic Word-Order Variation. Psychological Science. [PDF]
Koster-Hale, J., Saxe, R., Dungan, J., Young, L.Y. (2013). Decoding moral judgements from neural representations of intentions. PNAS. [PDF]


Bedny, M., Saxe, R. (2012) Insights into the origins of knowledge from the cognitive neuroscience of blindness. Cognitive Psychology. [PDF]
Frank, M., Saxe, R. (2012) Teaching Replication. Perspectives on Psychological Science. [PDF]
Bedny, M., Caramazza, A., Pascual-Leone, A., Saxe, R. (2012) Typical neural representations of action verbs develop without vision. Cerebral Cortex. [PDF]
Frank, M., Fedorenko, E., Lai, P., Saxe, R., Gibson, E. (2012) Verbal interference supresses exact numerical representation. Cognitive Psychology. [PDF]
Balas, B., Kanwisher, N., Saxe, R. (2012) Thin-slice perception develops slowly. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. [PDF]
Dungan J., Saxe R. (2012) Matched False-Belief Performance During Verbal and Nonverbal Interference. Cognitive Science. [PDF]
Redcay E., Dodell-Feder D., Mavros P.L., Kliener M., Pearrow M., Gabrieli J., Saxe R. (2012). Atypical brain activation patterns during a face-to-face joint attention game in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Human Brain Mapping. [PDF]
Redcay, E., Kleiner, M., Saxe, R. (2012). Look at this: the neural correlates of initiating and responding to bids for joint attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. [PDF]
Gweon H., Dodell-Feder D., Bedny M., Saxe R. (2012). Theory of Mind performance in children correlates with functional specialization of a brain region for thinking about thoughts. Child Development. [PDF]
Bruneau E., Saxe R. (2012). The power of being heard: the benefits of 'perspective-giving' in the context of intergroup conflict. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 48(4) 855-866. [PDF]
Bruneau E., Pluta A., Saxe R. (2012) Distinct roles of the 'Shared Pain' and 'Theory of Mind' networks in processing others' emotional suffering. Neuropsychologia 50(2) 219-231. [PDF]
Frank M., Fedorenko E., Lai P., Saxe R., Gibson E. (2012) Verbal interference suppresses exact numerical representation. Cognitive Psychology 64(1-2) 74-92. [PDF]
Bruneau E., Dufour N., Saxe R. (2012) Social cognition in members of conflict groups: behavioural and neural responses in Arabs, Israelis and South Americans to each other's misfortunes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 367(1589) 717-730. [PDF]


Bedny M., Pascual-Leone A., Dravida S., Saxe R. (2011) A sensitive period for language in the visual cortex: Distinct patterns of plasticity in congenitally versus late blind adults. Brain and Language. [PDF]
Saygin Z., Osher D.E., Koldewyn K., Reynolds G., Gabrieli J.D.E., Saxe R. (2011). Anatomical connectivity patterns predict face-selectivity in the fusiform gyrus. Nature Neuroscience. 15(2):321-327 [PDF]
Pitcher D., Dilks D., Saxe R., Triantafyllou C., Kanwisher N. (2011). Differential selectivity for dynamic versus static information in face-selective cortical regions. Neuroimage. 56(4) 2356-2363. [PDF]
Cikara M., Bruneau E., Saxe R. (2011). Us and Them: Intergroup failures of empathy. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 20(3):149-153. [PDF]
Bedny M., Caramazza A., Pascual-Leone A., Saxe R. (2011). Typical neural representations of action verbs develop without vision. Cerebral Cortex. 22(2) 286-293. [PDF]
Frank, M. C., Vul, E.,, Saxe, R. (2011). Measuring the Development of Social Attention Using Free-Viewing. Infancy. 1-21. [PDF]
Young, L., Saxe, R. (2011). When ignorance is no excuse: Different roles for intent across moral domains. Cognition. 120(2) 149-298. [PDF]
Moran, JM., Young, L., Saxe, R., Lee, SM., O'Young, D., Mavros, P., Gabrieli, J (2011). Impaired theory of mind for moral judgement in high-functioning autism. PNAS. 108(7) 2688-2692. [PDF]
Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Moran JM, Nieto-Castanon A, Triantafyllou C, Saxe R, Gabrieli J (2011). Associations and dissociations between default and self-reference networks in the human brain. NeuroImage. 55(1) 225-32. [PDF]
Bedny M, Pascual-Leone A, Dodell-Feder D, Fedorenko E, Saxe R. (2011) Language processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind adults. PNAS. [PDF]
Young, L., Scholz, J., Saxe, R (2011). Neural evidence for "intuitive prosecution": The use of mental state information for negative moral verdicts. Social Neuroscience. [PDF]


Saxe, Rebecca. (2010). The right temporo-parietal junction: a specific brain region for thinking about thoughts. Handbook of Theory of Mind. 'Ed'. Alan Leslie & Tamsin German. [PDF]
Bedny, M., Konkle, T., Pelphrey, K., Saxe, R., Pascual-Leone, A. (2010). Sensitive period for a multimodal response in human visual motion area MT/MST. Current Biology. [PDF]
Dodell-Feder, D., Koster-Hale, J., Bedny, M., Saxe, R. (2010). fMRI item analysis in a theory of mind task. NeuroImage. [PDF]
Bruneau, E., & Saxe, R. (2010). Attitudes towards the outgroup are predicted by activity in the precuneus in Arabs and Israelis. NeuroImage, 52(4), 1704-1711. [PDF]
Young, L., Dodell-Feder, D., & Saxe, R. What gets the attention of the temporo-parietal junction? An fMRI investigation of attention and theory of mind. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2658-2664. [PDF]
Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2010). It's not just what you do, but what's on your mind: A review of Kwame Anthony Appiah's "Experiment in Ethics." Neuroethics. [PDF]
Young, L., Nichols, S., & Saxe, R. (2010). Investigating the neural and cognitive basis of moral luck: It's not what you do but what you know. Review of Philosophy and Psychology. [PDF]
Young, L., Camprodon, J., Hauser, M., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2010). Disruption of the right temporo-parietal junction with transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces the role of beliefs in moral judgment. PNAS, 107(15), 6753-8.[PDF]
Redcay, E., Dodell-Feder, D., Pearrow, M. J., Mavros, P. L., Kleiner, M., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Saxe, R. (2010). Live face-to-face interaction during fMRI: A new tool for social cognitive neuroscience. NeuroImage, 50(4), 1639-1647. [PDF]
Bonawitz, L. B., Ferranti, D., Saxe, R., Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., Woodward, J., & Schulz, L. E. (2010). Just do it? Investigating the gap between prediction and action in toddlers' causal inferences. Cognition, 115, 104-117. [PDF]


Saxe, R. (2009). Theory of Mind (Neural Basis). Encyclopedia of Consciousness. [PDF]
Baker, C. L., Tenenbaum, J., Saxe, R. R. (2009). Action understanding as inverse planning. Cognition. [PDF]
Bedny, M., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. R. (2009). Growing up blind does not change the neural bases of theory of mind. PNAS, 106(27), 11312-11317. [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2009). The neural evidence for simulation is weaker than I think you think it is. Philosophical Studies, 144, 447-456. [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2009). The happiness of the fish: Evidence for a common theory of one's own and others' actions. The Handbook of Imagination and Mental Simulation. [PDF]
Saxe, R. R., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2009). Introduction to a special section of developmentl social cognitive neuroscience. Child Development, 80(4), 946-951. [PDF]
Saxe, R. R., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Scholz, J., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2009). Brain regions for perceiving and reasoning about other people in school-aged children. Child Development, 80(4), 1197-1209. [PDF]
Scholz, J., Triantafyllous, C., Whitfield-Gabrieli, S., Brown, E. N., & Saxe, R. (2009). Distinct regions of the right temporo-parietal junction are selective for theory of mind and exogenous attention. PLoS ONE, 4(3), 1-7. [PDF]
Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2009). Innocent intentions: A correlation between forgiveness for accidental harm and neural activity. Neuropsychologia, 47(10), 2065-2072. [PDF]
Young, L., & Saxe, R. (2009). An fMRI investigation of spontaneous mental state inference for moral judgment. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(7), 1396-1405. [PDF]


Bedny, M., Caramazza, A., Pascual-Leone, A., & Saxe, R. (2008). Concepts are more than percepts: The case of action verbs. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(44), 11347-11353. [PDF]
Kliemann, D., Young, L., Scholz, J., & Saxe, R. (2008). The influence of prior record on moral judgment. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2949-2957. [PDF] Young. L., & Saxe, R. (2008). The neural basis of belief encoding and integration in moral judgment. NeuroImage, 40(4), 1912-1920. [PDF]


Baker, C. L., Tenenbaum, J. B., Saxe, R. R. (2007). Goal inference as inverse planning. Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Tzelnic, T., & Carey, S. (2007). Knowing who dunnit: Infants identify the causal agent in an unseen causal interaction. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 149-158. [PDF]
Young, L., Cushman, R., Hauser, M., & Saxe, R. (2007). The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. PNAS, 104(20), 8235-8240. [PDF]


Baker, C. L., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Saxe, R. (2006). Bayesian models of human action understanding. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 18. [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2006). Uniquely human social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 235-239. [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2006). Why and how to study theory of mind with fMRI. Brain Research, 1079(1), 57-65. [PDF]
Saxe, R., & Carey, S. (2006). The perception of causality in infancy. Acta Psychologia, 123, 144-165. [PDF]
Saxe, R., & Powell, L. (2006). It's the thought that counts: Specific brain regions for one component of theory of mind. Psychological Science, 17(8), 692-699. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Brett, M., & Kanwisher, N. (2006). Divide and conquer: A defense of functional localizers. NeuroImage, 30, 1088-1096. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Jamal, N., & Powell, L. (2005). My body or yours? The effect of visual perspective on cortical body representations. Cerebral Cortex, 16(2), 178-182. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Moran, J. M., Scholz, J., & Gabrieli, J. (2006). Overlapping and non-overlapping brain regions for theory of mind and self reflection in individual subjects. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 1, 229-234. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Schulz, L. E., & Jiang, Y. V. (2006). Reading minds versus following rules: Dissociating theory of mind and executive control in the brain. Social Neuroscience, 1(3-4), 284-298. [PDF]


Heberlein, A. S., & Saxe, R. R. (2005). Dissociation between emotion and personality judgments: Convergent evidence from functional neuroimaging. NeuroImage, 28(4), 770-777. [PDF]
Saxe, R. (2005). Against simulation: The argument from error. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(4), 174-179. [PDF]
Saxe, R., & Wexler, A. (2005). Making sense of another mind: The role of the right temporo-parietal junction. Neuropsychologia, 43(10), 1391-1399. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Carey, S. (2005). Secret Agents: Inferences about hidden causes by 10- and 12-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 16(12), 995-1001. [PDF]

2004 and 2003

Saxe, R., Carey, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2004). Understanding other minds: Linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 87-124. [PDF]
Saxe, R., Xiao, D. K., Kovacs, G., Perrett, D. I., & Kanwisher, N. (2004). A region of right posterior superior temporal sulcus responds to observed intentional actions. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1435-1446. [PDF]
Saxe, R., & Kanwisher, N. (2003). People thinking about thinking people: The role of the temporo-parietal junction in "theory of mind". NeuroImage, 19, 1835-1842. [PDF]

Essays and Reviews

Saxe, R. (2015). Why I Captured This MRI of a Mother and Child. Smithsonian Magazine. [Link]
Saxe, R. (2005). Can the paradoxes of human emotion be best explained by art or by experimental psychology? Literary Review of Cananda, 13(4), 6-8.[PDF]
Your Brain: Flexible or Hard-Wired? A new book's claims about brain plasticity may be overstated - Review of The Brain That Changes Itself. [Link]
Reading Your Mind: How our brains help us understand other people - Boston Review. [Link]
An introduction to Cognitive Science of Moral reasoning - Boston Review. [Link]
The Forbidden Experiment: What can we learn from the wild child? - Boston Review. [Link]